On the morning of September 4, 1957, fifteen-year-old Dorothy Counts set out on a harrowing path toward Harding High, where-as the first African American to attend the all-white school – she was greeted by a jeering swarm of boys who spat, threw trash, and yelled epithets at her as she entered the building.
Charlotte Observer photographer Don Sturkey captured the ugly incident on film, and in the days that followed, the searing image appeared not just in the local paper but in newspapers around the world.
People everywhere were transfixed by the girl in the photograph who stood tall, her five-foot-ten-inch frame towering nobly above the mob that trailed her. There, in black and white, was evidence of the brutality of racism, a sinister force that had led children to torment another child while adults stood by. While the images display a lot of evils: prejudice, ignorance, racism, sexism, inequality, it also captures true strength, determination, courage and inspiration.
Here she is, age 70, still absolutely elegant and poised.
she deserves to be re-blogged.
she’s so goddamned inspirational
this makes me want to cry
The hot test generator in action. Image: J.Mannhart/MPG.de
Through a process known as thermionic conversion, heat energy — such as light from the sun or heat from burned fossil fuels — can be converted into electricity with very high efficiency. Because of its promise, researchers have been trying for more than half a century to develop a practical thermionic generator, with little luck. That luck may soon change, thanks to a new design — dubbed a thermoelectronic generator — described in AIP Publishing’s Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy(JRSE).
Thermionic generators use the temperature difference between a hot and a cold metallic plate to create electricity. “Electrons are evaporated or kicked out by light from the hot plate, then driven to the cold plate, where they condense,” explained experimental solid-state physicist Jochen Mannhart of the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany, the lead author of the JRSE paper. The resulting charge difference between the two plates yields a voltage that, in turn, drives an electric current, “without moving mechanical parts,” he said.
Previous models of thermionic generators have proven ineffectual because of what is known as the “space-charge problem,” in which the negative charges of the cloud of electrons leaving the hot plate repel other electrons from leaving it too, effectively killing the current. Mannhart, along with his former students Stefan Meir and Cyril Stephanos, and colleague Theodore Geballe of Stanford University, circumvented this problem using an electric field to pull the charge cloud away from the hot plate, which allowed electrons to fly to the cold plate.
"Practical thermionic generators have reached efficiencies of about 10 percent. The theoretical predictions for our thermoelectronic generators reach about 40 percent, although this is theory only," noted Mannhart. "We would be much surprised if there was a commercial application in the marketplace within the next five years, but if companies that are hungry for power recognize the potential of the generators, the development might be faster."
Lightning Ridge Black Opal - Twin Galaxy Gem Stones
Aside from Grey and White, Black Opal is the most precious and is at least 50 times more rare than diamond, yet these beautiful gems are also much more fragile.
The brilliant colors within the gems are iridescent, meaning that they will change color or flash as you rotate them. Deep down within the opal are silica spheres arranged in arrays and both the size and arrangement of the spheres will determine the color produced. The Twin Galaxy Stones will flash like lightning as you rotate them, hence the name Lightning Ridge in Australia.
Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors
Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias
Memories can be passed down to later generations through genetic switches that allow offspring to inherit the experience of their ancestors, according to new research that may explain how phobias can develop. Scientists have long assumed that memories and learned experiences built up during a lifetime must be passed on by teaching later generations or through personal experience. However, new research has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, found that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. The results may help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors. (via Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph)
i would love to know what this means in the context of slave descendants.
Yes, me as well, and also what this means for surviving families of not just enslavement, but also Indigenous genocide, and in some cases, both simultaneously. We have our great grandmothers memories. For some of us, this inherently means trauma. I have heard of a book called “Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome” but as far as I’m aware this is just that, and not peer reviewed.
However, I think we’ll come to find that this will play a huge role in the way we shape and form academia in the future. As it becomes clear that anything from multi-generational wariness to European-looking people to fears of water or possibly even animals used to enforce enslavement can be explored as a genetic memory… Maybe those atrocities themselves will no longer be forced under the rug.
There is a systematic downplaying of colonial history; to the point where people don’t even know what land they stand on or who it originally belongs to. However, for the descendants, even if they are forced out of their own histories and cultures, they will STILL carry some form of memory of these decades/centuries long traumas. It will affect them throughout their lives and they may not even know it… I often see this now in the form of all-to-regular self hatred.
When it is empirically proven that the descendants of the enslaved and survivors of genocide carry a genetic memory, maybe the colonizer’s academic structure will force itself to honor those it constantly erases. Or maybe it will simply shape itself again to continue on how it already does; as active agents of social violence.
Chromosome 2 - What separates chimps from humans?
At the genetic level chimpanzees are almost indistinguishable from humans, so how did the formation of human chromosome 2 lead to our divergence from our primate relatives?
Geneticist Aoife McLysaght heads to Dublin Zoo to explain more…
So to get to 51% of the electorate the Republicans are going to have to pull some votes from previously offended demographics.
the greatest part of yesterdays episode. now wheres the womens part?